Happy Columbus Day America! Are you celebrating yet? Do you think Columbus is a great man or a mythological creation of history to support conquest? I mean, if Columbus was alive today, would he be a Trump Supporter? I say let’s take a serious real historic look at the man and NOT the myth. And then we can decide if he would be a Trumpster. First, Christopher Columbus never landed in the USA. That’s right, he never stepped foot on the land we know as the USA. He actually likely landed in what is now known as the Bahamas. He called it San Salvador (meaning “Holy Savior”); the natives called it Guanahani. The explorer Christopher Columbus made four trips across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain: in 1492, 1493, 1498 and 1502. He was determined to find a direct water route west from Europe to Asia, but he never did. Instead, he stumbled upon the Americas. Though he did not really “discover” the New World—millions of people already lived there—his journeys marked the beginning of centuries of exploration and colonization of North and South America. Did you know? Christopher Columbus was not the first person to propose that a person could reach Asia by sailing west from Europe. In fact, scholars argue that the idea is almost as old as the idea that the Earth is round. (That is, it dates back to early Rome.) Columbus wanted fame and fortune. Very Trump-esque indeed. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella wanted the same, along with the opportunity to export Catholicism to lands across the globe. (Columbus, a devout Catholic, was equally enthusiastic about this possibility.) Columbus’s contract with the Spanish rulers promised that he could keep 10 percent of whatever riches he found, along with a noble title and the governorship of any lands he should encounter. So a religious nut and profiteer. Sounds like America’s evangelical right-wing Christians to me. For months, Columbus sailed from island to island in what we now know as the Caribbean, looking for the “pearls, precious stones, gold, silver, spices, and other objects and merchandise whatsoever” that he had promised to his Spanish patrons, but he did not find much. In January 1493, leaving several dozen men behind in a makeshift settlement on Hispaniola (present-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic), he left for Spain.The settlement was called Isabella. When he returned on his 2nd voyage, all the men were gone, dead. Anyways, Columbus kept a detailed diary during his first voyage. Christopher Columbus’s journal was written between August 3, 1492, and November 6, 1492, and mentions everything from the wildlife he encountered, like dolphins and birds, to the weather to the moods of his crew. More troublingly, it also recorded his initial impressions of the local people and his argument for why they should be enslaved. “They … brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things, which they exchanged for the glass beads and hawks’ bells,” he wrote. “They willingly traded everything they owned … They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features …They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. They have no iron …They would make fine servants … With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.” Columbus gifted the journal to Isabella upon his return. He was basically a slave creator, a slave master, a pro-slavery conqueror. Trump? Yes, I think Trump would approve. Trump is clearly a white supremacist and Aryan believer. His support for white supremacy is well documented and noted. So he would love Christopher Columbus; would probably say there are great people on both sides and award Mr. Columbus with a lovely supportive tweet. Johnny Punish, the artist, is the founder and General Manager of VT. He is also a writer, global citizen activist, visionary, musician, artist, entertainer, businessman, investor, life coach, and syndicated columnist. In business, he’s known by the name John AllenPunish was educated at the University of Nevada Las Vegas (1980-81) and California State University Fullerton (1981-1984) with studies in accounting and business. Before the “internets” were invented, he owned and ran (5) U.S. national newspapers.He has over 100 original songs penned, recorded, produced and registered with ASCAP with several songs placed in feature films. His music is promoted worldwide and played on all digital networks and net radio.Resources: BandCamp Store – Reverb Nation Music – YouTube Video Channel – Apple Music – SoundCloud – Spotify – Instagram – Twitter – Join Mailing ListRead Johnny’s Full Bio at JohnnyPunish.com > > > DISCLOSURE: All content herein is owned by author exclusively. Expressed opinions are NOT necessarily the views of Veterans Today Network (VTN), authors, affiliates, advertisers, sponsors, partners or technicians. Some content may be satirical in nature. All images within are full responsibility of author and NOT VTN.
…from the Washington Post – First published … October 12, 2020 – In a way, it’s the final insult to the American electorate. President Trump is badly distorting Anthony S. Fauci’s words into praise of his handling of coronavirus — at exactly the moment when Trump himself is emerging as a potential superspreader in his own right, in defiance of the spirit of everything Fauci has represented throughout this crisis. Trump is set to hold a rally in Florida on Monday night, marking his official return to the campaign trail after becoming infected. But the Associated Press reports this remarkable tidbit: The Trump campaign and White House has not indicated that any additional safety measures will be taken to prevent the transmission of the virus among those traveling on Air Force One, at the event site or at rallies scheduled for Pennsylvania and Iowa later in the week. It’s in this context that we should view the current clash between Trump and Fauci, his top infectious-disease expert, over a new Trump campaign ad that has provoked Fauci’s ire. DISCLOSURE: All content herein is owned by author exclusively. Expressed opinions are NOT necessarily the views of Veterans Today Network (VTN), authors, affiliates, advertisers, sponsors, partners or technicians. Some content may be satirical in nature. All images within are full responsibility of author and NOT VTN.
VT: We give a fuck about Christmas even if Melania doesn’t. We also care about kids in cages being sexually abused. Let Melania tell you how she really feels about them. Hold on, it’s going to be a bumpy ride… This is the classiest first lady of all time according to our Christian Evangelists. We were told that the Slovenian was not like hubby, not hateful and entitled, tasteless and bigoted. We knew better, and what we know we would never begin to put in print. Let her tell us, in her own way, is so much more delicious…catch Melania’s “fuck Christmas’ routine first… Jesus!Listen to this recording of flo-teets.Melania is as despicable as that fucker she married.What truly monstrous people.Human scum. https://t.co/oAz3Iv046o — Just Elizabeth (@Eiggam5955) October 2, 2020 .@FLOTUS on children in cages “Give me a f#%king break.” This woman is a vile racist birther who is complicit in everything her husband has done. Obama didn’t separate families, put kids in detention centers, or force hysterectomies on women#MelaniaTapespic.twitter.com/JD9sjild74 — Andrew Wortman (@AmoneyResists) October 2, 2020 Now we really get the jacket…OK, we always got the jacket… Someone get the mail order FLOTUS some tissue, please. I remember her wearing this jacket while her hubby @realDonaldTrump was locking children in cages to displayed like animals at a zoo or circus… #YesWeCare #FakeFirstFamily #BidenHarris2020 #BidenHarrisToSaveAmerica pic.twitter.com/cRuW2GxFOD — Lee Hawthorne (@LeeHawthorne) October 2, 2020 Speaking of….#MelaniaTapes aired in CNN, She says "Kids love being in cages" and Melania Trump: “Who gives a fuck about Christmas stuff and decoration?"… #BeBest #MelaniasWarOnChristmas pic.twitter.com/g5oRethB96 — Patricia Kellogg (@PatriciaKellogg) October 2, 2020 Oh god, then there’s this, Martian Christmas Trees… Who knew the War on Christmas™ was actually being lead by Melanoma from inside the Trump White House? pic.twitter.com/EMbmsL9vSy — Mitchell Gore 🇺🇸 (@lestatdelc) October 2, 2020 BREAKING: Forensic News can reveal, based on exclusive documents, that a small bank in Russia with deep ties to Russian intelligence quietly moved $330 million into Deutsche Bank’s New York branch during the time period that it was lending to #Trump #TrumpIsATraitor #GOP pic.twitter.com/e2VQSHLxNH — Sync Media Network (@joseph_ippolito) October 2, 2020 👏👏👏 pic.twitter.com/GEXpAqBccX — Stan Diego (@tuttleworld) October 2, 2020 Disgraceful DISCLOSURE: All content herein is owned by author exclusively. Expressed opinions are NOT necessarily the views of Veterans Today Network (VTN), authors, affiliates, advertisers, sponsors, partners or technicians. Some content may be satirical in nature. All images within are full responsibility of author and NOT VTN.
JohnnyPunish.com – Completely exhausted and pissed off, I recently wrote a song called THE VIOLATION; saying the U.S. Media has violated all of us; every American. It is currently hitting on Spotify and all digital media. So clearly this issue is something Americans are feeling. It is truly upsetting. Thus I decided to get deeper into it and find out what’s really wrong with our U.S. Media. Let’s dig in… As we all know, independent, aggressive, and critical media is essential to an informed democracy. But mainstream media is clearly way too cozy with the economic and political powers they should be watchdogging. It’s in our face now. They are not even trying to hide it and we are all paying the price. Worse, mergers in the news industry have accelerated, further limiting the spectrum of viewpoints that have access to mass media. With U.S. media outlets overwhelmingly owned by for-profit conglomerates and supported by corporate advertisers, independent journalism is compromised. To fix this, structural reform is needed to break up the dominant media conglomerates. We must establish independent public broadcasting and promote strong non-profit alternative sources of information. But can we do it? Are there even any signs that we can get back to real objective news? Well to engage in this discussion, first, we need to find out how we got here. You see, back in the early days of TV News, the news divisions of CBS, NBC, and ABC were loss leaders. In other words, while the network sitcoms, talk and game shows made them profits, the news divisions were never under pressure to show profits. The objectives were always news first. And that gave us some good news most of the time. The CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite gave rise to Cronkite being “The Most Trusted Man in News”. Back in those days, there was no such thing as FOX News and/or CNN. Cable channels did not exist. It was a simpler time. But then came cable and the internet… CBS Evening News with Walther Cronkite Fast forward to 1996 and the Telecommunications Act The Telecommunications Act of 1996 was the first significant overhaul of telecommunications law in more than sixty years, amending the Communications Act of 1934 signed by U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The 1996 Act, signed by U.S. President Bill Clinton, represented a major change in American telecommunication law since it was the first time that the Internet was included in broadcasting and spectrum allotment. One of the most controversial titles was Title 3 (“Cable Services”), which allowed for media cross-ownership. According to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the goal of the law was to “let anyone enter any communications business – to let any communications business compete in any market against any other.” The legislation’s primary goal was the deregulation of the converging broadcasting and telecommunications markets. 24 years later, if the intent was genuinely to improve news, we see it has NOT worked. What we have is a huge mess on our hands with objective news as the loser and the American the violated and abused. Vice President Al Gore looks on as President Clinton uses an electronic pen to sign the Telecommunications Reform Act, Thursday, Feb. 8, 1996, at the Library of Congress in Washington. With high-tech fanfare and a touch of humor, the president signed the bill to revolutionize the way Americans get telephone and computer services. (AP Photo/Doug Mills) In fact, almost all media that reach a large audience in the United States are owned by for-profit corporations–institutions that by law are obligated to put the profits of their investors ahead of all other considerations. The goal of maximizing profits is often in conflict with the practice of responsible journalism. Not only are most major media owned by corporations, but these companies are also becoming larger and fewer in number as the biggest ones absorb their rivals. This concentration of ownership tends to reduce the diversity of media voices and puts great power in the hands of a few companies. As news outlets fall into the hands of large conglomerates with holdings in many industries, conflicts of interest inevitably interfere with newsgathering. It is clear that aggressive antitrust action must be taken to break up monopolistic media conglomerates. At the same time, non-corporate, alternative media outlets need to be promoted by both the government and the non-profit sector. But how can we get there? It feels like the powers that be simply do NOT want objective news again. The profiteering is just too appetizing. You know most of the income of for-profit media outlets comes not from their audiences but from commercial advertisers who are interested in selling products to that audience. Although people sometimes defend commercial media by arguing that the market gives people what they want, the fact is that the most important transaction in the media marketplace–the only transaction, in the case of broadcast television and radio–does not involve media companies selling content to audiences, but rather media companies selling audiences to sponsors. This gives corporate sponsors a disproportionate influence over what people get to see or read. Most obviously, they don’t want to support media that regularly criticize their products or discuss corporate wrongdoing. More generally, they would rather support media that puts audiences in a passive, non-critical state of mind-making them easier to sell things to. Advertisers typically find affluent audiences more attractive than poorer ones and pay a premium for young, white, male consumers-factors that end up skewing the range of content offered to the public. It is becoming harder and harder to escape from the propagandistic effects of advertising. Even supposedly “noncommercial” outlets like PBS and NPR run ads-euphemistically known as “underwriter announcements.” [embedded content] Exhausted by the polarized political world in the USA, I wrote, performed, and produced THE VIOLATION to express my frustration with the LEFT and RIGHT extremists who think they are so right creating hate, mistrust, conspiracy theories and fanning the flames in this Cold Civil War. It hits massively hard-hitting right between the eyes. It aims to drive a stake through the dark heart of profiteering media propaganda, ignorance, and violence! Let it piss you off. In fact, there is NOT a black America or a white America or a Latino America or Asian America, there’s the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA! And until EXTREMISTS on both the LEFT and RIGHT stop enabling this NON-SENSE from their profiteering media, then we will continue to be violated by profiteers at our collective expense. When hosts of your favorite media show earn MILLIONS selling us division, they are NOT our friend. They are NOT like you and me. That’s just a pretend. You are like you and me. We are the pawns in their very sick game! We’ve been VIOLATED! The Violation LYRICS You think you’re so rightYeah ya think you’re so leftAnd you think you’re so smartBut you act like all the rest You cannot seeWhat they do to you and meBlinded by the lightscamera action you’ve lost the fightcause you…. You’ve been violatedoh so so violated It was a….SubjugationHumiliationLacerationPixellationAnnihilationInvalidationah weeeeeeeeeeeeeee You think you’re so rightAnd you think you’re so leftYeah ya think you’re so smartBut you’re such a freakin’ mess They got you to watch one sideYou quote them all the timeLike a puppet on their stringIt’s the chorus you shall sing causeYou’ve been violatedoh so so violated It was a…SubjugationHumiliationLacerationPixellationIntimidationAnnihilationah weeeeeeeeeeeeeee Don’t stick your tongue at meI’m not your enemyI will not piss on your back and tell you it’s raining SubjugatedViolatedoh oh so violated you were…SubjugatedHumiliatedLaceratedPixelatedIntimidatedAnnihilatedah weeeeeeeeeeeeeee Now go eat your sliver of bread and enjoy the show========================================Written, Performed and Produced by Johnny Punish* Special Guest Musician: Lead guitar by Stefano Andrigo of Milan, Italy Official Agendas Despite claims the press has an adversarial relationship with the government, in truth, U.S. media generally follow Washington’s official line. This is particularly obvious in wartime and in foreign policy coverage, but even with domestic controversies, the spectrum of debate usually falls in the relatively narrow range between the leadership of the Democratic and Republican parties. The owners and managers of dominant media outlets generally share the background, worldview, and income bracket of political elites. Top news executives and celebrity reporters frequently socialize with government officials. The most powerful media companies routinely make large contributions to both major political parties, while receiving millions of dollars in return in the form of payments for running political ads. In this incestuous culture, “news” is defined chiefly as the actions and statements of people in power. Reporters, dependent on “access” and leaks provided by official sources, are too often unwilling to risk alienating these sources with truly critical coverage. Nor are corporate media outlets interested in angering the elected and bureaucratic officials who have the power to regulate their businesses. Telecom Policy The United States’ original communications policy is the 1st Amendment. Freedom of the press was guaranteed in the Constitution because an exchange of information and an unfettered debate were considered essential components of a democratic society. Today, however, government policy is designed less to facilitate a democratic discussion than to protect the investments of media corporations. Regulations tend to promote the formation of huge media conglomerates and discourage new, competing voices. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 is a huge failure. It simply does NOT serve the public good. We need something new, updated, with serious principles in mind that serve the public good. But can we backtrack? How do we put the breaks on this system gone mad and find our way to good governance and news that actually provides for a well-educated informed public? Good questions right? Well, clearly this crazy nonsense has to stop. What we do know is the drive to maximize profits compels corporate news outlets to produce more and more news with fewer and fewer reporters. With less time to do each story, journalists are increasingly pressured to rely on the public relations industry to do much of their work for them: Reporters can rewrite press releases rather than do their own independent research, and TV stations can broadcast promotional videos that are designed to look like news footage. This symbiotic relationship between news outlets and the industries they cover, however, is a bad deal for the public. While institutional pressures are enough to keep most journalists from straying from the conventional wisdom, pressure groups stand ready to punish the exceptional reporter who challenges the official agenda. A pressure group is more concerned with suppressing viewpoints that it disagrees with than ensuring that a wide range of perspectives is available. Since pressure groups are often funded by companies or industries whose interests they promote, these groups often push ideologies that are already well-represented in media debates. Narrow Range of Debate Given that most media outlets are owned by for-profit corporations and are funded by corporate advertising, it is not surprising that they seldom provide a full range of the debate. The right edge of discussion is usually represented by a committed supporter of right-wing causes, someone who calls for significantly changing the status quo in a conservative direction. The left edge, by contrast, is often represented by an establishment-oriented centrist who supports maintaining the status quo; very rarely is a critic of corporate power who identifies with progressive causes and movements with the same passion as their conservative counterparts allowed to take part in mass media debates. What we end up with is Political Party TV Channels pretending to be news. The DEMS have MSNBC and GOP has Fox News; neither properly labeled giving the public the impression that they are news when, in fact, they are profiteering political party TV. I mean, we get mad when our products are NOT labeled properly and even have laws that prohibit misinformation and misrepresentation of products yet we have NOTHING for news; no warning labels and no properly labeling. Shouldn’t political party channels be forced to at least label properly ie… GOP Fox News or DEM-MSNBC? What About Censorship? Since governments almost always have an interest in controlling the free flow of information, official censorship is something that must be constantly guarded against. In our society, however, large corporations are a more common source of censorship than governments: Media outlets killing stories because they undermine corporate interests; advertisers using their financial clout to squelch negative reports; powerful businesses using the threat of expensive lawsuits to discourage legitimate investigations. The most frequent form of censorship is self-censorship: Journalists deciding not to pursue certain stories that they know will be unpopular with the boss. Worse, there is a more insidious censorship going on that is rarely discussed and that’s ECONOMIC CENSORSHIP. The big corporation that controls internet advertising is Google. They run something called Google Adsense. It is actually a huge part of their profitable business. And when they cancel publishers from their network, it affects all independent networks who follow their lead and depend on them for their profits. Online independent publishers are being driven out of relevance and business when Google brings down the hammer. And when they do, they offer NO EXPLANATION and NO RECOURSE. The publisher’s income can easily shrink by 80-90% putting them in a precarious situation. Some dropout, some barely survive, some find creative ways to stay alive. But make no mistake, by being shut out, their traffic drops significantly giving them less influence which is clearly the objective of this economic censorship. Sensationalism What’s left for the profit-driven MSM news organizations that are allowed to exist is great pressure to boost ratings by sensationalizing the news: focusing attention on lurid, highly emotional stories, often featuring a bizarre cast of characters and a gripping plot but devoid of significance to most people’s lives. Major news outlets have become more and more dependent on this kind of tabloid soap operas to keep profits high. And that’s what’s wrong with our media….it is violating all of us. And to be truthful, at this time, there is no movement to change the pathetic dynamic. For now, we are stuck with this terrible non-sense that continues to drive wedges into the American public The powerful profiteering forces simply do NOT want their boat rocked. And we the people, as a collective whole, are simply too busy surviving and/or too brainwashed to know we’ve been duped by all of this….yes it is The Violation. Sources Johnny Punish, the artist, is the founder and General Manager of VT. He is also a writer, global citizen activist, visionary, musician, artist, entertainer, businessman, investor, life coach, and syndicated columnist. In business, he’s known by the name John AllenPunish was educated at the University of Nevada Las Vegas (1980-81) and California State University Fullerton (1981-1984) with studies in accounting and business. Before the “internets” were invented, he owned and ran (5) U.S. national newspapers.He has over 100 original songs penned, recorded, produced and registered with ASCAP with several songs placed in feature films. His music is promoted worldwide and played on all digital networks and net radio.Resources: BandCamp Store – Reverb Nation Music – YouTube Video Channel – Apple Music – SoundCloud – Spotify – Instagram – Twitter – Join Mailing ListRead Johnny’s Full Bio at JohnnyPunish.com > > > DISCLOSURE: All content herein is owned by author exclusively. Expressed opinions are NOT necessarily the views of Veterans Today Network (VTN), authors, affiliates, advertisers, sponsors, partners or technicians. Some content may be satirical in nature. All images within are full responsibility of author and NOT VTN.
from Glenn Kirschner VT: Kirschner is a 30-year prosecutor and JAG who cuts through the political crap of the Senate’s highly redacted findings and applies real criminal law. Editor’s Note: This is a huge blow to Trump, as the report is from the Republican-controlled Senate Intel Committee. Trump cannot puff this away with a Tweet. He can try to distract attention from it with his usual diversion tactics, but the countdown has begun to November 3rd, where voters are going to remember what has been reported. We already had the Postal Service back off its ‘reform’ agenda, so as “not to conflict with the election” due to the huge public outrage. It was a stupid move by Trump and his handlers to attempt the stunt. Expect more bloopers as we go forward. This Post Office rigging scandal oozes with felony-level conspiracy, and a large number of former prosecutors are sharpening their knives to go after all involved in this attack on the vote, to discourage anyone in the future from attempting the same scam. Glenn has developed an excellent delivery style of the key points in these complex legal cases to help laypersons understand what is going on better, so they can be more informed voters on November 3rd. Even Hillary and ex-CIA director James Woolsey backed letting the spy, Pollard go That said, the biggest threat to our elections is the ongoing long term threat from the Israeli Lobby and its intelligence apparatus. They have openly influenced US elections by compromising large segments of our political class and leaders in the evangelical community. No one else in our history has compromised our democracy and security more, to the point that it is hardwired into our system. Our entire law enforcement and intelligence apparatus have stood down on this threat, considering it something above their pay grade to deal with. DISCLOSURE: All content herein is owned by author exclusively. Expressed opinions are NOT necessarily the views of Veterans Today Network (VTN), authors, affiliates, advertisers, sponsors, partners or technicians. Some content may be satirical in nature. All images within are full responsibility of author and NOT VTN.
As of this writing, there have been 5,626,946 cases of COVID-19 and over 174,268 deaths in the USA. Worldwide, there have been 21,819,223 cases with over 773,000 deaths. While in many places around the world, it seems to be under control. In the USA, that’s just not the case. It’s truly OUT OF CONTROL Self-Quarantined at home; angry, depressed, and pissed, I wrote this song. a Corona Virus Song by Johnny Punish Spotify – Pandora – Amazon – SoundCloud – Bandcamp – ReverbNation – Facebook LYRICS———-No words can describe what I feelEconomies are falling why must I kneelWhile governments are stalling no one at the wheelThis is out of control We’ve crossed the Rubicon everything is goneGot me a gun so get off my lawnPandemic got me falling no I can’t hang onThis is out of control Out of controlOh ohhhOut of controlOh ohhhOut of controlOh ohhhThis is out of control Nowhere to run I just need someoneTo tell me it’s O.K so I see the sunIt’s 11:59 and we’ve come undoneThis is out of control Out of controlOh ohhhOut of controlOh ohhhOut of controlOh ohhhThis is out of control Easter canceledBirthday canceledSchool canceledChristmas canceledFreedom canceled Out of controlOh ohhhOut of controlOh ohhhOut of controlOh ohhhThis is out of control Ah ahhhAh ahhhOut of controlAh ahhhOut of controlAh ahhhThis is out of control Written, Performed and Produced by Johnny Punish (Mexico)Extra lyrics and vocals by Charles Javier Bivona III (Mexico)Background Vocals by Nick Zaleski (Belarus)Lead guitar by Stefano Andrigo (Italy) Source: WorldOMeter.info Johnny Punish, the artist, is the founder and General Manager of VT. He is also a writer, global citizen activist, visionary, musician, artist, entertainer, businessman, investor, life coach, and syndicated columnist. In business, he’s known by the name John AllenPunish was educated at the University of Nevada Las Vegas (1980-81) and California State University Fullerton (1981-1984) with studies in accounting and business. Before the “internets” were invented, he owned and ran (5) U.S. national newspapers.He has over 100 original songs penned, recorded, produced and registered with ASCAP with several songs placed in feature films. His music is promoted worldwide and played on all digital networks and net radio.Resources: BandCamp Store – Reverb Nation Music – YouTube Video Channel – Apple Music – SoundCloud – Spotify – Instagram – Twitter – Join Mailing ListRead Johnny’s Full Bio at JohnnyPunish.com > > > DISCLOSURE: All content herein is owned by author exclusively. Expressed opinions are NOT necessarily the views of Veterans Today Network (VTN), authors, affiliates, advertisers, sponsors, partners or technicians. Some content may be satirical in nature. All images within are full responsibility of author and NOT VTN.